Heavy metal phytoremediation potential of CYP4502E1 expressing A. thaliana and S. grandiflora plants

Document Type: Original Article


1 Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad, Iraq

2 College of Biotechnology, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq

3 Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus, Syria


Heavy metals are among the highly dangerous pollutants although various physical and chemical remediation methods are available, phytoremediation is so far one of the easiest, safest, and cheapest methods for heavy metal remediation polluted sites. In this research, heavy metal phytoremediation potentials of the previously generated CYP4502E1 expressed in A. thaliana and S. grandiflora plants were evaluated. For this purpose, both transgenic plants were grown under greenhouse-controlled conditions. Firstly, plant phytoremediation potentials were evaluated under different irrigation inputs of Mn (75, 100, and 125 ppm); Cu (75, 100, and 125 ppm); and Pb (30, 40, and 50 ppm). Additionally, plants phytoremediation potentials of Zn (41.9 ppm) and Br (51.3 ppm) removal were evaluated overtime after 5, 10, and 15 days of growth. Results showed a significant increase in Mn, Cu, and Pb plant content in both plants with increasing contaminant inputs. Pb content in pot soil where S. grandiflora remained almost constant under the increased Pb inputs, which refers to the high potentials of this plant in remediating Pb. Contaminated soil experiment also showed a significant increase in Zn and Br content in both plants over time with a significant decrease in soil contaminants contents.


  1. Lasat MM. Phytoextraction of toxic metals. J. Environ. Qual. 2002;31(1):109-20. DOI
  2. Song WY, Sohn EJ, Martinoia E, Lee YJ, Yang YY, Jasinski M, Forestier C, Hwang I, Lee Y. Engineering tolerance and accumulation of lead and cadmium in transgenic plants. Nat. Biotechnol. 2003;21(8):914-9. DOI
  3. Baker AJ, McGrath SP, Reeves RD, Smith JA. Metal hyperaccumulator plants: a review of the biological resource for possible exploitation in the phytoremediation of metal-polluted soils. Phytoremediation of contaminated soil and water. 1999;6:85-107.
  4. Doty SL, James CA, Moore AL, Vajzovic A, Singleton GL, Ma C, Khan Z, Xin G, Kang JW, Park JY, Meilan R. Enhanced phytoremediation of volatile environmental pollutants with transgenic trees. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2007;104(43):16816-21. DOI
  5. Suman J, Uhlik O, Viktorova J, Macek T. Phytoextraction of heavy metals: a promising tool for clean-up of polluted environment?. Front. Plant Sci. 2018;9:1476. DOI
  6. Heering JH, Gutteridge RC. Sesbania grandiflora (L.) poiret. In: Mannetje L, Jones RM, eds. Plant resources of south-east Asia, No. 4. Forages.Wageningen (The Netherlands): Pudoc Scientific Publishers. 1992:196–8.
  7. Evans DO. Sesbania grandiflora: NFT for beauty, food, fodder and soil improvement. Agroforestry Species and Technologies. 2001:155-6.
  8. Gonzalez FJ, Gelboin HV. Human cytochromes P450: evolution and cDNA-directed expression. Environ. Health Perspect. 1992;98:81-5. DOI
  9. Morant M, Bak S, Møller BL, Werck-Reichhart D. Plant cytochromes P450: tools for pharmacology, plant protection and phytoremediation. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 2003;14(2):151-62. DOI
  10. Danielson PÁ. The cytochrome P450 superfamily: biochemistry, evolution and drug metabolism in humans. Curr. Drug Metab. 2002;3(6):561-97. DOI
  11. Werck-Reichhart D, Hehn A, Didierjean L. Cytochromes P450 for engineering herbicide tolerance. Trends Plant Sci. 2000;5(3):116-23. DOI
  12. Mouhamad R, Ghanem I, AlOrfi M, Ibrahim K, Ali N, Al-Daoude A. Phytoremediation of Trichloroethylene And Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane—Polluted Water Using Transgenic Sesbania Grandiflora and Arabidopsis Thaliana Plants Harboring Rabbit Cytochrome P450 2E1. Int. J. Phytoremediation. 2012;14(7):656-68. DOI
  13. Mouhamad R, Ibrahim K, Ali N, Ghanem I, Al-Daoude A. Determination of heavy metal uptake in transgenic plants harbouring the rabbit CYP450 2E1 using X-ray fluorescence analysis. Int. J. Environ. Sci. 2014;71(3):292-300. DOI
  14. Baker AJ. Metal hyperaccumulator plants: a review of the ecology and physiology of a biological resource for- phytoremediation of metal-polluted soils. Phytoremediation of contaminated soil and water. 2000.
  15. Tisdale M, Alnadaf T, Cousens D. Combination of mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase required for resistance to the carbocyclic nucleoside 1592U89. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1997;41(5):1094-8. DOI
  16. Salt DE, Rauser WE. MgATP-dependent transport of phytochelatins across the tonoplast of oat roots. Plant Physiol. 1995;107(4):1293-301. DOI
  17. Tangahu BV, Abdullah S, Rozaimah S, Basri H, Idris M, Anuar N, Mukhlisin M. A review on heavy metals (As, Pb, and Hg) uptake by plants through phytoremediation. Int. J. Chem. Eng. 2011. DOI
  18. Zhang B, Liu Y, Li X. Alteration in the expression of cytochrome P450s (CYP1A1, CYP2E1, and CYP3A11) in the liver of mouse induced by microcystin-LR. Toxins (Basel). 2015;7(4):1102-15. DOI
  19. Delhaize E, Kataoka T, Hebb DM, White RG, Ryan PR. Genes encoding proteins of the cation diffusion facilitator family that confer manganese tolerance. Plant Cell. 2003;15(5):1131-42. DOI
  20. Alhusaini A, Hasan IH, Aldowsari N, Alsaadan N. Prophylactic Administration of Nanocurcumin Abates the Incidence of Liver Toxicity Induced by an Overdose of Copper Sulfate: Role of CYP4502E1, NF-κB and Bax Expressions. Dose-Response. 2018;16(4):1559325818816284. DOI